Added: Nicaela Ridge - Date: 06.10.2021 18:43 - Views: 16822 - Clicks: 5025
Philip H. Reports of rape, murder and domestic violence are also way up in Mexico.
Education levels among Latin American women and girls have been rising for decades and — unlike the U. Several have elected women presidents. But we could engage in a similar exercise with other Latin American countries or the U. In Guatemala, where to women are killed every yeargendered violence has deep roots. The war, which ended inkilled overGuatemalans.
Mass rape has been used as a weapon of war in many conflicts. In Guatemala, government forces targeted Indigenous women. Testimonies from the war demonstrate that soldiers saw Indigenous women as having little humanity.
They knew Mayan women could be raped, killed and mutilated with impunity. This is a legacy of Spanish colonialism. Starting in the 16th century, Indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants across the Americas were enslaved or compelled into forced labor by the Spanish, treated as private propertyoften brutally.
Some Black and Indigenous women actually tried to fight their ill treatment in court during the colonial period, but they had fewer legal rights than white Spanish conquerors and their descendants. The subjugation and marginalization of Black and Indigenous Latin Americans continues into the present day. In Guatemala, violence against women affects Indigenous women disproportionately, but not exclusively. Conservative Catholic and evangelical moral teachings hold that women should be chaste and obey their husbandscreating the idea that men can control the women with whom they are in a sexual relationship.
Women as well as men have internalized this view. Seventeen have passed laws making feminicide — the intentional killing of women or girls because they are female — its own crime separate from homicide, with long mandatory prison sentences to try to deter this.
Guatemala even created special courts where men accused of gender violence — whether feminicide, sexual assault or psychological violence — are tried. Research I conducted with my colleague, political scientist Erin Beck, finds that these specialized courts have been important in recognizing violence against women as a serious crime, punishing it and providing victims with much-needed legal, social and psychological support.
But we also found critical limitations related to insufficient funding, staff burnout and weak investigations. There is also an enormous linguistic and cultural gap between judicial officials and in many parts of the country the largely Indigenous, non-Spanish-speaking women they serve.
All these efforts to protect women — whether in Guatemala, elsewhere in Latin America or the U. They make feminicide one crime, physical assault a different crime, and rape another — and attempt to indict and punish men for those acts. But they fail to indict the broader systems that perpetuate these problems, like social, racial, and economic inequalities, family relationships and social mores. So simply sending the abuser to prison is not sufficient. Gendered violence calls for a punishment that both implicates the community and the offender — and tries to heal them.
Some Mexican Indigenous communities have autonomous police and justice systemswhich use discussion and mediation to reach a verdict and emphasize reconciliation over punishment. Sentences of community service — whether construction, digging drainage or other manual labor — serve to both punish and socially reintegrate offenders.
Terms range from a few weeks for simple theft to eight years for murder. Stopping gendered violence in Latin America, the U. And grand social progress seems unlikely in a pandemic.
But when lockdowns end, restorative justice seems like a good way to start helping women and our communities. Edition: Available editions United Kingdom.
Funeral for a woman and her year-old daughter, both found dead inside a burnt out vehicle in Puebla state, Mexico, June 11, Lynn Marie StephenUniversity of Oregon.Brazilian women Guatemala
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Violations of Indigenous Women’s Rights: Brazil, Guatemala, and the United States